These Countries Have Adopted the UDRP

The Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) is certainly the most frequently used tool to combat cybersquatting -- but, it is not always an option.

Many countries have adopted their own domain name dispute policies -- or none at all -- in lieu of the UDRP.

For example, domain names in the United Kingdom's .uk country-code top-level domain (ccTLD) are subject to Nominet's Domain Dispute Resolution Service, which applies a different test -- and uses a different service provider -- than the UDRP. The same is true for Canada's .ca ccTLD, Germany's .de ccTLD, and many others.

Still, of the 312 ccTLDs, many of them have adopted the UDRP or a variation of it. (One of the most common variations is a small but significant change to the third element of the UDRP, which requires that trademark owners show a disputed domain name was registered "and" is being used in bad faith. Many of the UDRP variants loosen this test and require only that trademark owners show a disputed domain name was registered "or" is being used in bad faith.)

Below is a list of the 42 countries that (according to WIPO and as of the date of this blog post) have adopted the UDRP.

Implications for Trademark Owners

As a result, a trademark owner can file a UDRP complaint with any of the UDRP service providers for any domain name that includes any of the ccTLDs listed below. And, as WIPO notes, "[w]here a ccTLD has adopted the UDRP, disputes in those ccTLDs may be combined in one single UDRP proceeding alongside domain names in generic top level domains (gTLDs)," such as .com or any of the new gTLDs.

Of course, as in all UDRP proceedings, language may be an issue, so it is important to determine the language of the applicable registration agreement -- or consider whether an exception may be appropriate. Given that most of the ccTLDs listed below are for countries in which English is not an official language, English-speaking trademark owners may see this issue arise more frequently than in other domain name disputes.

Finally, it's interesting to note that, although the list below is somewhat lengthy, UDRP disputes occur irregularly within these ccTLDs. For example, WIPO and the Forum (the two most-popular UDRP service providers) together have heard 366 .tv disputes (because the .tv ccTLD has been marketed on behalf of Tuvalu for those in the television industry), while they have had no cases involving the Pitcairn Islands' .pn ccTLD.

ccTLDs using UDRP